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You must de-authorize your Mac from all Apple services before transferring all Click on De-authorise This Computer in iTunes on Mac De-authorise Mac for iTunes on Mac Check out this post to discover all the tricks it has in store for you.

If you lose the ability to write to USB or network drives, the solution is the same. Nothing to change here. I have controlled these preferences. I get this error for every shell. Finally I found the solution. There are more steps needed in Finder, delete empty shells file, change permissions in the information dialog. I had the same problem; a reboot did the trick for me.

Helpful answers

Not used to having to do that on a Mac: Changing my user account password via System Preferences fixed this for me I changed it to the same value, which presumably just forced the OS to write some user account info to files. I use Mac OS X Combining answers from Tim and chemm was useful in my case.

I used Tim's approach to bring up a terminal using a different shell. I had the same problem. You'll need to supply your password a few times to achieve the above, and I suppose you'll need to be on an administrator account. Quitting my Aquamacs emacs session fixed the problem! When I restarted Aquamacs, Terminal continued to work fine. I had NOT used the emacs shell command, but somehow these applications still interacted in an unfortunate way. I wouldn't dream of letting them do anything by remote, absolutely no screen sharing.

Or, to make sure you get every last bit, get EasyFind, set to scan all files, including invisibles and search using "MacKeeper" and "Zeobit. What do you see for Permissions? Bummer about MacKeeper. Have not as yet uninstalled it, but will. Did track down all sorts of problems starting around the time I installed it. But then again, did a whole lot of general mac cleaning up and internet downloading, which is why I got MacKeeper, around that time too.

Will uninstall the program as per your directions but this is what I get doing a Get Info on Terminal. May 24, 7: May 24, 9: WZZZ gave you a way to get to it. I'll suggest another below since I want you to do some additional checks. I never expected getting rid of MacKeeper would get things working again, particularly if it was the one that something to cause this problem in the first place. Hit reutrn after each line. Post the lines along with their output that you see in the Terminal window:.

May 24, Another step. May 25, Should work but the file or folder needs to exists to access it. Basically to find out what you already seemed to find out. Trying to open Terminal I get;You are not authorised to run this application. A character that follows a backslash will be treated with no special meaning:. In Finder, you can name files and folders nearly any way you want.

When you encounter special characters from the list above you have to escape them with backslash. All of this further confused by the fact that the shell will happily display the path with the unescaped special characters:. However, Finder lets you name a file or folder with a forward slash, e. On the other hand, Finder does not let you name a file or folder with a colon: Maybe in the shell and you have to escape the colons when using the path in a command:. As seen above, escaping characters can make the path quite unreadable.

You can also place the name or path in quotes:. In bash you can use single quotes ' or double quotes " to quote paths. Single quotes are more effective. Any character in single quotes is used as is, with no special function. Even the backslash character has no special function. The only character you cannot use in single quotes is the single quote itself.

In general, single quotes are most useful and easiest to use. However, you cannot use single quotes when the filename contains a single quote.

Why use Terminal (the shell) at all?

Double quotes still require some characters to be escaped with the backslash and cannot deal with an exclamation mark! Backslash escaping works in nearly all cases, but can be tricky to type right and is quite illegible.

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When typing paths, always use tab completion to be safe. Tab completion uses backslash escaping by default. Tab completion is even smart enough to change the approach when the strategy you chose i. Back to our earlier example, the pwd command. You entered the command pwd and the shell returned a result:. Your output will be different. Unless your name is also armin , the path will end with your user name, not mine.

Depending on the configuration of your Mac, your path might be entirely different. Modern file systems are hierarchical and have many folders and files nested in each other. For example, if there is a file hello. On macOS the root of the file system is the top level of the volume or disk with the active system, i. Addressing files and folders with their full path each and every time would be very tedious.

It is surprisingly easy to lose track of the current working directory. You can ask the shell for the current working directory with the pwd command. You can change the current working directory with the cd command change directory:.

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Use the cd command with a relative path Documents and the shell changes it working directory there. The pwd command prints the full path of the working directory. You may have noticed that the prompt displays the name of the current directory. Terminal on macOS will also display the current working directory in the window title bar. The second window or tab will start a second, new bash shell. This shell is entirely separate of the first bash shell. Different shells will have different working directories. They are very much like different windows showing different folder contents in the Finder.

You also often want to move up one level in the folder hierarchy, to the parent folder of the current folder. Now you could remember your current location or recall it with pwd and cd to the absolute path of the parent manually. However, there is an easier way to do this:. In bash and most other shells two periods.. You can quickly switch back to the previous working directory with cd - minus:. To assist orientation, cd - will print the full path to the directory it is changing to. Typing paths is tedious and error prone.

Errors in paths can lead to simple errors and frustration, and sometimes typos can have catastrophic results. You can hit tab over and over at different parts of the command:. When there are multiple options to complete, bash will complete as far as it is unambiguous and will play an alarm sound. When you then press tab for the second time, it will list all options:. Using tab-completion not only saves keystrokes and time, but also reduces the potential for typos and errors. There are many special characters that you have to deal with in the shell. Space is one of them. We will learn how to deal with space and the other special characters in the next section.

This command will list the contents of the current working directory. The contents of your home directory may be different. To use the space efficiently ls prints the files and folders in multiple columns the number of columns depends on the size of your Terminal window. This simple list can be very useful to lookup file and directory names.

However, you cannot tell the difference between files and directories in this list. You can tell ls to show an extra character to indicate the kind of an entry: Normal files documents will have no extra character. In this command the -F is an option for the ls command. Options are a special kind of argument. Options usually start with one or two a hyphen characters - and are followed by a letter. Generally options work like switches to turn certain features of the command on or off.

Since ls is a very common command, it has many options. The -G option works similar to the -F option but marks the different kinds with colors:. With most commands you can combine multiple options after a single hyphen: You can combine options and an argument. When you do that you usually put the options before the argument. The default output of ls is very terse. You can get more information by adding the -l lower-case L option. There are more options that you can use with the -l option. For example the -h option will show file sizes with B bytes , K kilobytes , M megabytes etc.

Certain files and directories that are invisible in Finder are visible in the shell. By convention however, ls does not usually list files and directories that start with a dot or period. You can make ls show these files with the -a option. In UNIX files and directories that start with a period are commonly used to store configuration data. The first two entries in this list are. We already know that.. The single period. This can be useful to see the file mode and owner of these directories right here. You can learn more about hidden files and folders in this article.

So far we have encountered three commands to navigate the file system: Two periods.. You can use it alone or to start a path to folders and files in your home directory. The ls command has many options. The most commonly used are probably -l to show a detailed list of the files and folders and -a to also show the files and directories starting with a period, which are usually hidden. Terminal has a distinct black icon with a white prompt. However, since you are reading this book, you are planning to use Terminal regularly.

In this case, you really want to add the Terminal application to your Dock. Once you have opened Terminal, it will show you a new window, which is white with black text by default. A short message will show the last login and then a line with the default prompt:. Finally a dark gray block, the cursor, waiting for your input.

Using the shell (Terminal) in Mac OS X

The functionality remains the same, no matter how it looks. You can enter your first command. The return key confirms a command and runs it. You can also move the cursor through the characters you entered with the left and right arrow keys. When you hit return with a wrong command or a command with a typo the shell will complain that it cannot find the command:. We have already encountered a few different terms which may be very confusing in the beginning. The bad news is there are more terms, the good news is that it will all make sense eventually. All of these terms date back to the days when computing started with big mainframe computers.

Since computers were scarce, complex and expensive, many users had to share access. Terminals and consoles may have looked somewhat like like modern workstations and computers, but did not have their own CPU. They would just allow to enter and send commands and receive and display the results.

Very early in the history of computing, terminals used mechanical printers or typewriters to show the results, these were called tele-typewriters or tty. The protocol that the mainframe used to communicate with the typewriters, was named tty as well. The protocol and its name have remained, long after the mechanical typewriters are gone. Later the mechanical interfaces where replaced by terminals with electric keyboards and cathode ray screens. Even so, it was and is still convenient to run a shell, either locally or to connect to larger mainframes servers. The Terminal application on macOS is such a virtual terminal program.

To confuse things a little, macOS also has an application called Console. The Console application on macOS is not a virtual terminal or virtual console, but used to display and filter log files. The terminal whether virtual or real only provides a means virtual or mechanical to enter and display text.

Terminal Error shell has illegal value

There is another program which interprets the text, executes code and sends the output generated back to the terminal. Another way of looking at it, is that a shell protects the vulnerable, fragile parts of the the system from the user. There are many different shell programs. Surprisingly, sh is still around after nearly fifty years. You will notice that unix shells and commands often exhibit a particular style of pun humor. Today, there are many different shells.

Different shells have different ways of interpreting commands. The choice of shell is a personal preference and can be as many things in computing the cause of passionate argument. As system administrators, the choice of shell is not just determined by preference, but also practicality. There are a set of pre-installed shells on macOS and while it is possible to install additional shells, it increases complexity and management effort. Also when you are sharing commands and scripts with fellow administrators, bash is the commonly agreed upon shell.

Because of this prevalence bash is a good choice for your first shell. It is also the default shell on most Linux distributions and was the choice for the Unix command shell on Windows There is a newer major version: However, since bash4 is licensed as GPLv3, Apple still only includes the older bash 3. You can download and install bash4 if you want to, but many system administrators stick with the pre-installed version. We will be covering bash 3. If you are curious, you can list all available shells on macOS with the following command in Terminal:.

When entering commands, you have to watch that you type the command exactly as given, including spaces and other special characters. They are not forgiving to errors. There are a few mechanisms that will usually protect you from ruining your system and data and thus your day entirely, but you need to always be careful and check. As we saw earlier the default prompt shows more information. However, this information computer name, user name is different for every Mac and user.

Sometimes the output in this book will be abbreviated to make it fit the layout. Command Line shells commonly have two major roles. The first is to interpret and execute commands entered in an interactive prompt and deliver the results back to the user. The second role is to interpret and process list of commands, called scripts.

While scripts basically use the same set of commands as the interactive shell, scripts can also use control statements, loops, and variables which makes them a related task, but much more complex. In this book we will focus on the interactive part of bash.


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Next Post: Navigating the File System. It is vacation time here in the Scripting OS X headquarters and I will be enjoying time off with family for most of August. I will keep track of interesting posts, and provide a big summary at the end of the month, though I will also be offline and lot probably miss something interesting.


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  • Using the shell (Terminal) in Mac OS X!
  • If you find any post or link you think is worthy, you can send to it me on Twitter or the MacAdmins forum also scriptingosx and I will make sure to include it. However, I did not want to go entirely dark during the month. To keep you interested, I will post a few sections from the book I am currently working on over the next week. They are still a bit rough and unfinished. They are much more basic than the series of Terminal tips and tricks I ran a few weeks ago. They are targeted to Mac Admins who are new to Terminal and bash. The book this chapter is from, will contain this primer, but also sections on how to use Terminal and bash effectively as a Mac Admin.

    Yes, I know, I have promised a book on autopkg. Which I am also still working on. However, while writing the autopkg book I realized that Terminal and bash skills are fundamental for Mac Admins and I feel I need to get it out of the way first. The Terminal Primer sections will be posted automatically scheduled on this blog over the next few weeks. Let me know how you like them or if you think something important is wrong or missing.

    You can give feedback in the comments, over Twitter or in the MacAdmins forum also scriptingosx. Thank you for your interest and feedback! Please consider supporting Scripting OS X by buying one of my books! In most cases Terminal is entirely useful and sufficient. There are also applications for iOS you can use to connect to other computers with ssh. Prompt 2 vendor page is my favorite iOS application to connect to a shell.

    Prompt supports external keyboards and keyboard shortcuts. It also supports key based authentication and agent forwarding.