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You must de-authorize your Mac from all Apple services before transferring all Click on De-authorise This Computer in iTunes on Mac De-authorise Mac for iTunes on Mac Check out this post to discover all the tricks it has in store for you.

Running it without having the user enter their password at least once would be good, but most likely impossible if I'm not mistaken. Short answer A. You're done! Double-click the file to run. Dragging over the terminal icon will also work. If you need to do something that requires root admin access, you can prefix your command with sudo.

When the script runs, you'll have to enter your password and be an administrator If the end user isn't an administrator, but you need to do something that required root access, you can use su someAdminName , which will perform the command as someAdminName you'll need his password.

Cullub Cullub 6 Is there a way to make a command file not to log out? I want to have a command file which opens the terminal with predefined path variable.

A script is just a series of commands, so you could put it into a bash script. However, if you are getting diagnostic info, for example, you can have a script that does! Allan Allan Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Even the Bash Guide for Beginners contains a misleading example:.

It is possible to count the number of elements in the array, but the array must be specified explicitly with:. For operations that test whether a variable is set, they can be forced to check whether the variable is set and not empty by adding a colon ": The operator? There is another subtle difference between the two: To create a literal string, use single quotes; to create an interpolated string, use double quotes:. In bash, variable scope is at the level of processes: The command expr prints the result of arithmetic expressions, but one must take caution:.

While declaring variables implicitly is the norm in bash, it is possible to declare variables explicitly and attach a type to them. Given that is sometimes useful to nest these expansions, newer shells have added a nestable notation: In most contexts in bash, a glob pattern automatically expands to an array of all matching filenames:.

However, the C shell scripting language has its uses, particularly for writing scripts that set up environment variables for interactive shell environments, execute a handful of commands in order, or perform other relatively lightweight chores. Outside of this chapter, this document does not generally cover the C shell syntax. If after reading this, you still want to write a more complex script using the C shell programming language, you can find more information in on the C shell in the manual page for csh.

This is known as an interpreter line. However, it is best to specify this line anyway for consistency. The second thing you should notice is the echo command. You can read more about the difference between the builtin version and the standalone version in echo and Use Shell Builtins Wherever Possible.

Then, in Terminal, type:.

Mac Automation Scripting Guide: Creating a Script

To make this more interesting, the next script throws in a few variables. Type or paste this script into the text editor of your choice see Creating Text Files in Your Home Directory for help creating a text file and save the file in your home directory in a file called test. This script provides an example of a variable assignment.

You should immediately notice that variables may or may not begin with a dollar sign, depending on how you are using them.


  • Making a script available everywhere!
  • Shell programming with bash: by example, by counter-example.
  • How to make a simple bash script (Mac).
  • Run a bash shell script.
  • Why use bash?.

If you want to dereference a variable, you precede it with a dollar sign. The shell then inserts the contents of the variable at that point in the script. For all other uses, you do not precede it with a dollar sign. You should also notice that the argument to echo is surrounded by double quotation marks.

Notice that the echo statement is followed by a string surrounded by quotation marks. Normally, the shell uses spaces to separate arguments to commands. By surrounding the string with double quote marks, the shell treats the entire string as a single argument to echo even though it contains spaces. To see how this works, save the script above as test. Notice also that there are similar quotation marks on the right side of the assignment statement:. With most modern shells, these double quotation marks are not required for this particular assignment statement because there are no literal spaces on the right side , but they are a good idea for maximum compatibility.

When assigning literal strings rather than variables containing strings to a variable, however, you must surround any spaces with quotation marks. For example, the following statement does not do what you might initially suspect:. The reason for this seemingly odd error is that the assignment statement ends at the first space, so the next word after that statement is interpreted as a command to execute. Using quotation marks is particularly important when working with variables that contain filenames or paths. For example, type the following commands:. It then attempts to list the files in that directory.

The first time, it uses quotation marks. The second time, it does not. In modern Bourne shells, expansion of variables, occurs after the statement itself is fully parsed by the shell. However, if you are using double quote marks within a literal string, you must quote that string properly. This quoting technique also applies to literal strings within commands entered on the command line.

For example, using the script from earlier in Shell Variables and Printing , the command:. The details of quotes as they apply to variable expansion are explained in Parsing, Variable Expansion, and Quoting. Variable safety with shells that predate this behavior is generally impractical. Fortunately, the modern behavior has been the norm since the mids.

Short answer

Shell scripts also allow the use of single quote marks. Variables between single quotes are not replaced by their contents.

Bash Shell Scripting On Mac OS X

Be sure to use double quotes unless you are intentionally trying to display the actual name of the variable. You can also use single quotes as a way to avoid the shell interpreting the contents of the string in any way. These differences are described further in Parsing, Variable Expansion, and Quoting. One key feature of shell scripts is that variables are typically limited in their scope to the currently running script.

Shell Scripting Primer

The scoping of variables is described in more detail in Subroutines, Scoping, and Sourcing. For now, though, it suffices to say that variables generally do not get passed on to scripts or tools that they execute. Normally, this is what you want. Most variables in a shell script do not have any meaning to the tools that they execute, and thus represent clutter and the potential for variable namespace collisions if they are exported. Occasionally, however, you will find it necessary to make a variable's value available to an outside tool.

To do this, you must export the variable.